Steel is an alloy. It consists of an alloy of Iron (Fe) and Carbon (C).
It mainly consists of iron element and 0.02% - 2.1% carbon alloy. The carbon ratio plays an active role in the classification of steel. Although carbon is generally the alloying material, elements such as magnesium, chromium, vanadium and tungsten can also be used instead of carbon. It is known that this building material is used extensively in today's conditions.
Steel is one of the most used metals in the world. With an annual production of 800 million tons worldwide, steel is the second most produced commodity with cement. It is fully recyclable and requires little energy to produce. Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions have been reduced as much as possible today. This is an indication of the environmental friendliness and sustainability of steel.
Today, most steel production companies produce by two methods. At this point, we can easily state that steel is a material that has been frequently encountered recently. In fact, the fact that the mixtures in the steel are applied much more successfully is effective in the formation of this situation.
This method is the most widely used method. Oxygen converters are positioned vertically. There are heat resistant refractory (heat and fire resistant material) linings on the inside and sheet metal on the outside. The furnace is placed in a horizontal position so that the raw material can be filled and the slag can be poured. After the raw iron is taken into the furnace, carbon is removed by oxygen blowing method. Scrap is added to protect the refractory from the high heat generated. The blowing process is done for about 20 minutes.
Production in Electric Arc Furnaces
Unlike the basic oxygen method, no hot metal is used in the arc furnace. Cold scrap steel is filled with metal. Scrap steel is unloaded into the arc furnace with a crane from above and the cover of the furnace is closed. This cover carries three electrodes that are lowered into the arc furnace. Currents passing over the electrodes create arcs and the heat released starts to melt the scrap. The electrical energy used in this process is equivalent to the electricity production of a city of 100,000 people. During the melting time, other metal alloys are added to meet the required chemical composition.
Samples are taken to check the chemical composition. After examining the samples, the arc furnace is tilted and the slag on the molten steel is poured. After this process, the furnace is turned to the other side and the molten steel is transferred to a crucible. From there it is transferred to Caster. Today, a standard arc furnace can process up to 300-400 tons of scrap. This process takes approximately 90 minutes.
Steel, which is a preferred metal in many areas today, is mainly used as a building material by construction companies. This material, which is easy to produce and recycle, is used in many areas from skyscrapers to bridges in the construction field. Apart from these, it is mainly used in sectors such as automotive, medical supplies and kitchen utensils. Steels are produced in different standards according to each sector.